Salvador Dali's the Persistence of Memory



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STM, LTM and models

Give a brief account of the differences between STM and LTM, and consider the extent to which research supports the distinction between them (12)

To what extent does the multistore model offer a reasonable account of human memory? (12)

Give a brief account of and evaluate the working memory model of human memory (12)

Outline and evaluate the working memory model (12)

Explain why studies of memory have been criticized for lacking ecological validity. (5)

Outline two characteristics of STM (2)

Explain what is meant by encoding, capacity and duration (2,2,2)

Describe 3 differences between STM and LTM (6)

Explain one strength of the MSM (2)

Outline two weaknesses of the MSM (2, 2)

Using the MSM, outline the processes involved in storing and retrieving material in MSM (4)

Outline key features of the MSM (6)

Describe key features of the working memory model (6)

Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the WMM (6)

Explain one strength of the WMM (2)

Outline two weaknesses of the WMM (2,2)

Peter is using a map to show Jane where he lives.  Using the WMM, outline how the information from the map would be processed by Peter (4)


Reconstructive memory and EWT

Discuss the use of the cognitive interview in obtaining evidence from eyewitnesses (12)

Mary witnesses a car accident on her way home from school.  The next day the police come round and ask her to describe what she saw.  Identify and explain two techniques the police might use to help her recall the details of the accident accurately. (4)

Outline two factors that affect the accuracy of EWT (2,2)

Explain why research studies into EWT have been criticized for lacking ecological validity (5)

Explain how the age of a witness can affect EWT (4)

Describe what affect anxiety has on EWT (4)

Outline the key features of the cognitive interview technique as you might if you were interviewing an eyewitness at the scene of a crime (6)

Outline research into EWT (6)

Outline and evaluate research into the use of the cognitive interview (12)

Outline and evaluate research into the effects of misleading information (12

Trevor is a police officer who is concerned that his questioning technique leads to incomplete and sometimes inaccurate testimony.  He asks a lot of short, closed questions and because he’s always busy, finds himself interrupting all the time to speed the process along.  He believes his habit of asking questions in no particular order helps to keep the witness on their toes and prevents them for elaborating on what happened.

Identify the problems with Trevor’s technique and suggest changes that would lead to improvements in the accuracy of EWT.  (6)

Evaluate research into eye witness testimony  (12)


Improving memory

Identify one strategy that will improve recall of information for an examination (1)

Explain why this strategy should improve recall (2)

Strategies for memory improvement have generally been based on laboratory experiments.  Explain some of the limitations of such experiments as a basis for memory improvement.

Explain one strategy for memory improvement (4)

Evaluate this strategy in terms of research evidence (4)

Alice is visiting her doctor.  She needs to remember all the information that the doctor tells her:

a.      Outline two methods of memory improvement that might help Alice and explain why they should aid recall (4) or

b.      Describe one method of memory improvement that aids recall (4)

Derek’s little brother is nine years old and keeps coming home without his bag, coat, lunch box, PE kit or homework.  Each day he can remember some things but not all of them.  Derek has been studying psychology and has decided to help Derek remember everything he needs to put in his bag before coming home.

  1. Outline two strategies that Derek might use to help Fred remember all the items and explain why each of the strategies might work (2,2)
  2. Evaluate one of the strategies you have described in part a (4)

Memory and research methods

A psychologist wished to investigate the accuracy of eyewitnesses’ recall of real life events.  Using a structured interview she questioned some witnesses to an armed robbery several months after the incident had occurred. 

  1. Explain one advantage of using a structured interview to collect data (2)

The psychologist carried out a content analysis on the qualitative data collected from these interviews.

  1. Outline the processes involved in content analysis of these interviews. (4)
  2. Explain one strength of qualitative data   (2)

Before interviewing witnesses the researcher conducted a pilot study:

  1. Explain what is meant by the term pilot study and explain why one was used in this study. (1 and 2)

The investigator was aware that the study should be conducted in an ethical manner

  1. Identify one ethical issue that should be considered in this research (1)

Explain why this is an ethical issue (3)

The police service has asked a group of psychologists to test the use of the cognitive interview technique with a group of six year old children.  The psychologists decide to compare the recall of some pictures they are shown when being read a story and given a standard interview.  The next week they hear a different story and are given a different interview. 

  1. What experimental design is being used in this investigation? (1)
  2. Outline the problem the psychologists might encounter in this situation because they are using this design. (2)
  3. Describe how the problem you outlined in part b could be avoided (2)