Arrangement in grey and black or Whistler's mum as it is usually known! Attachments questions



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Define the terms ‘attachment’, ‘social releaser’ and ‘separation.anxiety’. (2,2,2)

Outline the basic procedures involved in the strange situation (4)

Describe the main characteristics of anxious avoidant (type A), secure (type B) and anxious resistant (type C) attachment (3.3.3)

Outline two weaknesses of the strange situation (2,2)

Describe and evaluate research into cultural variations in attachment (12)

The strange situation has been used to investigate attachment

Outline aspects of infants’ behaviour that are recorded when using this technique.  (3)

  1. Outline what psychological research has shown about the effects of institutionalization on attachment behaviour (6)
  2. Discuss implications of research into institutionalization on attachment behaviour (4)

Lachmi is planning to provide day care facilities for pre-school children below the age of five years.  She is keen to promote social development of the children attending.

Outline what practices Lachmi could introduce to encourage social development of the children (6)

Outline and evaluate the evolutionary explanation of attachment (12)

The baby did not cry much when mother left the room and greeted her return with enthusiasm.  He was happy to explore the room when his mother was there though he checked occasionally to see where she was.  He clung to his mother when a stranger entered the room.

  1. Identify the type of attachment described (1)
  2. Describe on other type of attachment (2)
  3. Describe what psychologists have found about cross-cultural variations in attachment (4)
  4. Describe one criticism that has been made of research into cross cultural variations in attachment (2)

Discuss research into the different types of attachment (12)   (suggested approach in Cardwell and Flanagan p43)

Explain why the validity of Ainsworth’s research has been criticized.  (5)

Outline two behaviours that are characteristic of an insecurely attached child (2)


Explanations of attachment

Outline two weaknesses of the learning theory explanation of attachment (2,2)

Define what is meant by the terms ‘cupboard love’, ‘contact comfort’ and ‘monotropy’ (2,2,2)

Define what is meant by the terms ‘anaclitic depression’, ‘imprinting’ and ‘critical period.’ (2,2,2)

Outline the behavioural explanation of attachment formation (4)

Distinguish between the terms ‘deprivation’ and ‘privation.’ (3)

Learning theory has been used to explain attachment.  How does this explanation differ from the evolutionary explanation of attachment? (4)

There are many explanations for attachment, such as learning theory and the evolutionary perspective (Bowlby). 

Discuss one explanation of attachment (8)  (suggested approach in Cardwell and Flanagan p39)


Deprivation and privation

Give two examples of short term deprivation (1,1) 

Outline the three components of distress (2,2,2)

Outline the three factors that are likely to make separation most distressing (2,2,2)

Give two examples of long term deprivation (1,1)

Describe three effects of divorce (2,2,2)

Define what is meant by the terms ‘separation anxiety’, ‘affectionless psychopathy’ and ‘disinhibited attachment.’  (2,2,2)

Outline and evaluate research into the effects of being brought up in an institution (12)

Outline effects of disrupting attachment bonds (5)

Explain what is meant by the term ‘privation.’  (2)

Discuss research into the effects of failing to form an attachment (privation) (8)

Outline and evaluate Bowlby’s maternal deprivation hypothesis (12)

Describe Bowlby’s maternal deprivation hypothesis (6)


Day care

Outline and evaluate research into the effects of childcare on the social development of children (12)  (Sample answer in Cardwell and Flanagan p57)

Give four examples of criteria used to define the quality of day care (1,1,1,1)

Margaret has just had a baby and wishes to go back to work.  Suggest two factors that she may consider when selecting day care (4)


Research methods and attachment

Some psychologists wanted to see the effects of separation upon children’s development. They conducted a case study on a two year old child who was separated temporarily from her parents when she had to go into hospital.  It was found that the child demonstrated protest, followed by despair followed by detachment. 

  1. Explain one advantage of using a case study in a psychological investigation (2)
  2.  Explain one difficulty in drawing conclusions about the effects of separation from this study (2)
  3. Explain how this problem could be overcome (2)
  4. Explain one ethical issue that should be considered when undertaking research that involves children (2)
  5. Explain how this ethical issue would be dealt with (2)

There is a danger with case studies of investigator effects:

  1. Explain one investigator effect that may have occurred in this study (2)
  2. Explain how this investigator effect could be resolved (2)

Outline one study of attachment by Mary Ainsworth (4)

What is meant by a naturalistic observation? (4)

Studies of institutionalization are often natural experiments in which a group of institutionalized children are compared to a group of non- institutionalized children. What are the features of a natural experiment? (3)

What has research told us about the effects of institutionalization on children’s development? (5)